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Prevalence and risk factors of sarcopenia among adults living in nursing homes

H. E. Senior, T. R. Henwood, E. M. Beller, et al.

Maturitas 2015; 82: 418–423

Sarcopenia is a progressive loss of skeletal muscle and muscle function, with significant health and disability consequences for older adults. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of sarcopenia among older residential aged care adults using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) criteria.

Effects of a vitamin D and leucine-enriched whey protein nutritional supplement on measures of sarcopenia in older adults, the PROVIDE study: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

J.M. Bauer, S. Verlaan, I. Bautmans, et al.

J Am Med Dir Assoc.2015;16:740-747

This study was a multicenter, randomized, controlled, double-blind, 2 parallel-group trial among 380 sarcopenic primarily independent-living older adults. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that a specific oral nutritional supplement can result in improvements in measures of sarcopenia. Improvements in muscle mass and lower-extremity function were observed, suggesting that nutritional supplementation alone might benefit geriatric patients.

Nutritional, Physical, Cognitive and Combination Interventions and Frailty Reversal Among Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

T. P. Ng, L. Feng, M.S. Nyunt, et al.

Am J Med.2015;128:1225-1236.e1

This study aimed to assess the reversibility of frailty in 246 community-living prefrail and frail older people in Singapore (mean age: 70 years). Participants were randomly assigned to 5 different 6-month interventions: nutritional supplementation, physical training, cognitive training, combination treatment and usual care control. Frailty score, body mass index, knee extension strength, gait speed, energy/vitality, physical activity levels and secondary outcomes (activities of daily living dependency, hospitalization and falls) were assessed at 0, 3, 6 and 12 months.

Caloric restriction and aerobic exercise in sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic obese women: an observational and retrospective study

S. Barbat-Artigas, S. Garnier, S. Joffroy, et al.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2016;7(3):284-9

The objective of this observational and retrospective study was to verify the effect of a mixed weight loss programme combining caloric restriction and exercise on body composition, and lipid-lipoprotein profile of obese women according to their sarcopenic status. Data obtained suggest that a short weight loss programme combining caloric restriction and aerobic exercise may significantly reduce fat mass and improve lipid-lipoprotein profile in obese women, independently of their sarcopenic status. Such programmes may have deleterious effects on lean mass in non-sarcopenic obese subjects, only.

The Relationship Between Urinary Total Polyphenols and the Frailty Phenotype in a Community-Dwelling Older Population: The InCHIANTI Study

M. Urpi-Sarda, C. Andres-Lacueva, M. Rabassa, et al.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015;70(9):1141-7

Studies have suggested that the quality of dietary intake may affect the development of frailty. The authors of this study hypothesized that frailty in older subjects would be associated with dietary total polyphenols (DTP) intake and its biomarker, urinary total polyphenols (UTP). Data obtained shown that an high concentrations of UTP were associated with lower prevalence of frailty and prefrailty in an older community-dwelling population. A polyphenol-rich diet may protect against frailty in older persons.

Estimation of sarcopenia prevalence using various assessment tools

C. Beaudart, J.Y. Reginster, J. Slomian, et al.

Experimental Gerontology.2015;61:31-7

This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of sarcopenia in relation to the assessment tool used in the measurement of the variables related to muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance. The results obtained showed that the prevalence of sarcopenia varies between 8.4% and 27.6% in relation to the method used. Furthermore, it was observed that the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) tends to overestimate muscle mass compared to the X-ray absorptiometry dual energy (DXA). As regards the muscle strength, it is observed that the pneumatic dynamometer allowed to diagnose the double of the sarcopenic subjects compared to hydraulic dynamometer.