For Healthcare Providers

Prevalence and risk factors of sarcopenia among adults living in nursing homes

H. E. Senior, T. R. Henwood, E. M. Beller, et al.

Maturitas. 2015; 82: 418–423

Sarcopenia is a progressive loss of skeletal muscle and muscle function, with significant health and disability consequences for older adults. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of sarcopenia among older residential aged care adults using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) criteria.

Effects of a vitamin D and leucine-enriched whey protein nutritional supplement on measures of sarcopenia in older adults, the PROVIDE study: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

J.M. Bauer, S. Verlaan, I. Bautmans, et al.

J Am Med Dir Assoc .2015;16:740-747

This study was a multicenter, randomized, controlled, double-blind, 2 parallel-group trial among 380 sarcopenic primarily independent-living older adults. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that a specific oral nutritional supplement can result in improvements in measures of sarcopenia. Improvements in muscle mass and lower-extremity function were observed, suggesting that nutritional supplementation alone might benefit geriatric patients.

Nutritional, Physical, Cognitive and Combination Interventions and Frailty Reversal Among Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

T. P. Ng, L. Feng, M.S. Nyunt, et al.

Am J Med. 2015;128(11):1225-1236.e1

This study aimed to assess the reversibility of frailty in 246 community-living prefrail and frail older people in Singapore (mean age: 70 years). Participants were randomly assigned to 5 different 6-month interventions: nutritional supplementation, physical training, cognitive training, combination treatment and usual care control. Frailty score, body mass index, knee extension strength, gait speed, energy/vitality, physical activity levels and secondary outcomes (activities of daily living dependency, hospitalization and falls) were assessed at 0, 3, 6 and 12 months. Frailty score and status over 12 months were reduced in all groups, but the reduction rates were significantly higher in the intervention groups compared with the usual care control group, with the combination intervention group showing the highest odds (OR 5.00). Beneficial effects persisted at 12 months.

Quality of life and physical components linked to sarcopenia: The SarcoPhAge study

C. Beaudart, J.Y. Reginster, J. Petermans, et al.

Experimental Gerontology. 2015;69: 103–110

The SarcoPhAge project is an ongoing longitudinal study following community-dwelling elderly subjects; the aim of this study is to assess prevalence of sarcopenia and clinical components using the diagnosis algorithm developed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). The authors concluded that sarcopenia seems to be associated with many harmful clinical components (for example frailty and polipharmacy) making this geriatric syndrome a real public health burden.

Polypharmacy and frailty: prevalence, relationship, and impact on mortality in a French sample of 2350 old people

M. Herr, J.M. Robine, J. Pinot, et al.

Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety. 2015;24(6):637-46

Polypharmacy is associated to several negative outcomes as drug-drug interactions and mortality. Frail older people often have multiple chronic conditions and may therefore be particularly at risk of polypharmacy. This cross-sectional population study aimed to assess the prevalence of polypharmacy and frailty, to examine their association, and to establish their independent and combined effects on mortality in a sample of 2350 French older people aged 70 years and over. This study emphasizes the importance of the combined effects of two prevalent condition in older people, polypharmacy and frailty, on mortality risk.

Association of Hearing Impairment With Incident Frailty and Falls in Older Adults

R.J. Kamil, J. Betz, B. Brott Powers, et al.

Journal of Aging and Health. 2016;28(4):644-60

The hearing impairment (HI) is highly prevalent but undertreated in older adults and, although it contributes to frailty risk, it remains poorly studied. This study aimed at determining whether HI in older adults is associated with the development of frailty and falls. This study demonstrate that moderate or greater HI is associated with increased risk of developing frailty and that HI is associated with an increased annual risk of falling.